The earliest glass makers in the world were ancient Egyptians. The appearance and use of glass has been used in human life for more than 4,000 years. From the remains of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt 4000 years ago, small glass beads were unearthed. [2-3]
In the 12th century AD, commercial glass appeared and became an industrial material. In the 18th century, optical glass was made to meet the needs of a telescope. In 1874, Belgium first produced flat glass. In 1906, the United States produced flat glass lead-in machines. Since then, with the industrialization and scale-up of glass production, various uses and various performances of glass have emerged one after another. In modern times, glass has become an important material in daily life, production, and science and technology.
More than 3,000 years ago, a European Phoenician merchant ship was loaded with crystalline mineral “natural soda” and sailed on the Mediterranean coast of the Beirut River. Due to the ebb tide, the merchant ships ran aground and the crew boarded the beach. Some crew members also brought large pots, moved firewood, and used a few “natural sodas” as scaffolds for cauldrons to start their meal on the beach.
After the crew finished eating, the tide began to rise. As they were preparing to pack and embark on the boat to continue sailing, suddenly someone shouted: "We are all coming and seeing, there are some bright, glittering things on the sandy land under the pot!"
The crew took these glittering things and took them to the ship and studied them carefully. They found that there was some quartz sand and melted natural soda on these shiny things. It turned out that these glittering things are the natural sodas that they used to make pot holders during cooking. Under the effect of the flames, they reacted with quartz sand on the beach to produce substances. This is the earliest glass. Later, the Phoenicians pooled the quartz sand with the natural soda and then melted it in a special stove to make a glass ball. The Phoenicians made a fortune.
Around the 4th century, the ancient Romans began to apply glass to doors and windows. By 1291, Italian glass manufacturing technology had been developed.
In this way, Italian glass craftsmen were all sent to an isolated island to produce glass, and they were not allowed to leave this island in their lifetime.
In 1688, a man named Naf invented the process of making large pieces of glass. Since then, glass has become a common item.
Glass: This is Van Gogh, not the so-called glass now. He also made a number of poems, and the new translations of Pokhara, Ghibha, and Sepo to Gaya, etc., were equivalent to the essence of water on this side.
Chinese translation for crystal, purple, white, red, green four-color.
For centuries, people have always believed that glass is green and cannot be changed. It was later discovered that green comes from a small amount of iron in the raw material, and the compound of divalent iron makes the glass green. After the addition of manganese dioxide, the original divalent iron becomes trivalent iron and the tetravalent manganese is reduced to trivalent manganese in the form of a purple color. Optically, yellow and purple can complement each other to a certain degree, and when mixed together into white light, the glass will not color. However, after several years, trivalent manganese is continuously oxidized by air, and the yellow color will gradually increase, so the windows of those old houses will be slightly yellowish.
Translucent glass is an amorphous structure of amorphous solids (from the microscopic point of view, glass is also a liquid), its molecules do not have long-range orderly arrangement in space like crystals, but have short-range similar to liquids. sequence. The glass retains a specific shape like a solid, unlike the liquid that flows with gravity.
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